History: US Military Interventions Against Domestic civil, Racial and labor “Unrest”

January 19, 2012

Between 1775 and 1994, the U.S. military has been utilized by the President on at least 136 occasions to contain and overwhelm labor “unrest” (80 times) and racial or civil “unrest” (56 times). [Sweeney, Jerry K., Ed. (1996). A Handbook of American Military History. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp. 3-269]. But “A Report Submitted to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence,” Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives [Graham and Gurr, Eds. (1969). Bantam Books, p. 380], discloses over 160 occasions on which State and Federal troops have intervened in labor disputes alone. Note, that this figure includes use of State militia as well as US military. This is twice the number of military interventions into labor disputes than reported in Sweeney’s 1996 Handbook of American Military History (above).

“According to the foremost historians of American labor violence, the U.S. has had the ‘bloodiest and most violent labor history of any industrial nation in the world.’ An admittedly grossly underestimated tabulation of the number of casualties in labor disputes indicates over seven hundred deaths and thousands of serious injuries, almost all of which occurred in the 1873-1937 period” [Goldstein, Robert Justin. (1978). Political Repression in Modern America, From 1870 to the Present. Cambridge: Schenkman Publishing Co., Inc., p. 3; Graham, Hugh Davis, and Ted Robert Gurr, Eds. (1969). Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives. New York: Bantam Books, p. 380].

In 1878 Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act (18 USCS Sec. 1385) making it illegal for the government to deploy its military against “civil disturbances.”  Since the passage of this law, and despite its provisions, there have been at least 114 instances of use of U.S. military against its own citizens participating in “unrest,” 1878–1994 (Sweeney, A Handbook of American Military History, pp. 102-269). However, in recent years the Posse Comitatus Act has been eroded even further by (1) amendments and secret executive decrees that enable the president to use the military to restore order if enforcement of the law by civil authorities is not able to “quell civil disturbances”; and (2) the alarming extreme militarization of domestic police departments all around the country [Churchill, Ward. (2003). Perversions of Justice: Indigenous peoples and AngloAmerican Law. San Francisco: City Lights, pp. 363, 398]. Furthermore, use of “noncombat” employment of military personnel have intervened under the aegis of the ”War on Drugs” and war on so-called immigrants.

NOTE:  When the figure of 136 domestic US military interventions, or the higher figure of 216 [56 military interventions into racial or civil unrest (Sweeney) plus 160 into labor unrest (Graham and Gurr)] is added to 560 identifiable overt foreign military interventions, 1798 – 2008, the total of US overt military interventions, foreign and domestic, is 665 (or 776) US Military interventions. Since the date of the first domestic intervention was 1794 (Whiskey Rebellion), and first foreign intervention was 1798 (Dominican Republic), and these figures cover the period of 1794-2008, a period of 214 years, a US military offensive operation, domestic and foreign, has been conducted an average of anywhere from 3.2– 3.6 times per year to preserve the American Way Of Life.

.


3 Comments

  1. Posted April 17, 2020 at 1:53 pm | Permalink

    Slot games are one of the most popular gambling games in the total world, why ?.
    The slot machine was originally made as entertainment for bars or pubs in supplementary York.
    Players count up coins and later pull the
    lever to spin the slot robot and the results that arrive
    out will determine what rewards the artiste gets from beer to
    cigar. The prize is positive by the machine
    owner and there is no unqualified payment in the midst of the machines.

    Then this was developed in accordance in the manner of the times, until finally gambling was allowable
    in the allied States and many gambling houses or casinos made various types of slot games that existed until higher in the late 20th century,
    several software companies made programs for the slot
    games we played today. This is on an online gambling site.

    At present there are more than hundreds of thousands of types of online slot games that exist
    throughout the world, made by thousands of gambling game
    software companies. However, there are several companies that are
    famous for the games they have developed that have interesting graphics and sounds.
    under we will write a number of renowned slot gambling software providers or developers,
    along subsequently the most popular slot games from that slot provider.

  2. Posted April 25, 2020 at 6:19 am | Permalink

    Very rapidly this website will be famous amid all blogging
    and site-building visitors, due to it’s good articles or reviews

  3. Posted May 29, 2020 at 8:26 pm | Permalink

    The best in class, Depoxito have the funds for
    you high-end experience that lecture to the see and vibes of legal VIP standarts, we have enough money you the best
    tempting to high-level experience of VIPs expect in any top stop casino, grand enliven casino royale have the funds for you the supplementary studio design element
    including the grand blackjack, offering our
    VIP Customer the best experience of a Salon privee table.

    New style table also feature across the room later grand roulette upgraded on our provider playtechs mini prestige roulette which delivering more fascinating and richer playing experience.
    The new experience contains a sum of seven tables including five
    blackjack tables, one roulette table and one baccarat table.
    Grand bring to life casino royale has been tall hand-engineered to fit the needs of our
    customer to using it, and contains unique elements that is specially expected to maximize the impact value we
    got from our customers and diversify it to the existing network.

    Soon, Depoxito will manufacture an augmented certainty technology on live
    casino for our VIP member, these most protester technology ever
    seen in conscious casino including this improved reality.
    Which permit players to experience products upon an entire other
    level which is never seen before literally leaping out of the game and taking the
    blackjack, baccarat, roulette and supplementary game into the gather together entire level.

    Depoxito VIP Baccarat, we pay for you the extremely exclusive
    stir VIP Baccarat that is played later happening to
    7 players at the similar table and our intensely trained
    beautiful rouse baccarat dealer. And of course our
    VIP fanatic will tone as if they were in point of fact
    sitting at one of the top casino baccarat table.
    This immersive gaming experience creates a hugely risk-taking sky that our VIP players will locate hard to
    surpass.
    Here is the list of flesh and blood casino game that
    depoxito provide, we come up with the money
    for the widest range of flesh and blood casino
    games on the push including : blackjack unlimited, blackjack prestige, roulette,
    baccarat, poker, hi-lo, sic bo, and grand bring to life
    casino royale such as Grand Baccarat, Grand Blackjack and Grand Roulette for our VIP member.
    And of course as a zealot of Depoxito you can enjoy every the games that
    we present to you, all you craving to do is just visit our site depoxito and register it abandoned takes
    happening to 3 minutes and subsequently youre customary to play-act any game that you want.

    Be our VIP, beast our VIP aficionada of course decided you the best minister to you can acquire from us all you dependence to be a VIP
    aficionado is utterly easy. every you obsession is just save playing upon our site, buildup and sham once a VIP later the amount that our company had written, save
    playing and our customer utility will approach you that you are promoted to become a VIP aficionada upon our
    site.

Post a Comment

Your email is never shared. Required fields are marked *

*
*

Real Time Web Analytics