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S. Brian Willson
This site contains essays describing the incredible historic pattern of U.S. arrogance, ethnocentrism, violence and lawlessness in domestic and global affairs, and the severe danger this pattern poses for the future health of Homo sapiens and Mother Earth. Other essays discuss revolutionary, nonviolent alternative approaches based on the principle of radical relational mutuality. This is a term increasingly used by physicists, mathematicians and cosmologists to describe the nature of the omnicentric*, ever-unfolding universe. Every being, every aspect of life energy in the cosmos, is intrinsically interconnected with and affects every other being and aspect of life energy at every moment.
*everything is at the center of the cosmos at every moment
All blog entries and essays posted on this site are authored by S. Brian Willson.
Los Angeles Creates First SWAT
The first tactical, quasi-military domestic police team was formed in the Los Angeles Police Department in 1967 for special assignments as needed. The concept was provoked by sniping incidents during and after the six day Watts Riot in 1965, when 34 people were officially reported killed, 1,100 injured, 4,000 arrested, and 600 buildings were damaged or destroyed with an estimated $200 million in damages.
The concept was to train a small group of supposedly highly disciplined officers to utilize special weapons and tactics to respond to situations that were thought beyond the capabilities of normally equipped and trained police. More specifically, the initial idea was to provide military-type security for police facilities during civil unrest. The first Los Angeles tactical unit consisted of 15 four-man teams. Virtually all members of each team had prior military service, and participated in monthly trainings.
The first large challenge to the special tactical teams came in December 1969 when search warrants for illegal weapons were served at the Black Panther Headquarters in inner city Los Angeles. The Black Panthers resisted the 40 member tactical unit during a four-hour siege. Thousands of rounds of ammunition were fired, resulting in the wounding of three Panthers and three police officers before the Panthers surrendered.
By 1971, the first tactical teams were assigned on a full-time basis to respond to perceived “subversive” groups. They adopted the name, Special Weapons And Tactics Team (SWAT), designated as “D” Platoon.
Blurring Lines Between Military and Domestic, Civilian Police
Ever since the creation of the first domestic police Special Weapons And Tactics (SWAT) teams 45 years ago, there has been a blurring of the line between military and civilian police missions and tactics. Use of both military and civilian police to contend with “terrorist” or “insurgent” threats has evolved worldwide from the concept of “unconventional” operations utilizing “special” forces in guerrilla warfare.
There is no better domestic example of the meld of military with civilian police operations and mentalities than the April 19, 1993 siege of the David Koresh Davidian religious compound in Waco, Texas. Fatigue-clad FBI and Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) agents, accompanied by advisors from the Army’s secret Delta forces, fortified with helicopters, armed vehicles, tanks, and assault weapons, conducted a military, in lieu of a civilian law enforcement, operation. Over 80 human beings needlessly perished in the operation. The local sheriff possessed a regularly accessible and friendly relationship with members of the religious commune who often traveled to nearby towns. The sheriff was virtually totally ignored in the attempts to talk and negotiate with Koresh. The federal assault operation became the alternative. The military mind-set easily becomes a siege mentality where respect is ignored and nearly any response is rationalized.
It is believed that both military and CIA and FBI counterterrorist units were present alongside civilian law enforcement agencies at both the July 1984 Olympic games in Los Angeles and the Democratic convention in San Francisco to protect participants from “terrorists.” Soldiers from the Army’s elite Delta force, discussed above, were apparently deployed in New York City to assist New York’s finest during the 1986 July 4 celebrations (“Army Antiterrorist Squad To Be In City, Officials Say,” The New York Times, June 28, 1986). As these encroachments by the military on domestic law enforcement functions have leaked to the public, citizens and civil libertarians have severely criticized these operations as a dangerous violation of the long-held principle of the separation of armed forces from domestic law enforcement operations. Such military powers can very easily expand to seriously threaten the privacy, liberty and lives of the people.
Military Origins of “Special Forces”
U.S. Army unconventional warfare began with small units operating behind the lines during World War II. Army Special (counter-insurgency) Forces officially became part of its Psychological Warfare Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina in 1952. Shortly after President Kennedy took office, prompted by the ill-fated April 1961 CIA-sponsored invasion of Cuba, he substantially expanded the Special Forces (now wearing green berets) counterinsurgency capacities at their beefed-up Special Warfare Center at Fort Bragg. Special Forces were the first American troops dispatched to Vietnam under President Kennedy to conduct operational roles, often working under the command of the CIA and well insulated from Army regulars.
The Marine Corps, historically proud of its record and capacity for engaging in hostile local operations around the world going back to the late 1700s, was nonetheless bolstered in 1961 with the appointment of Major General Victor Krulak to fill a new post as Joint Chiefs’ Special Assistant for Counterinsurgency and Special Activities. The Air Force, too, established its First Air Commando Group in April 1961 and created its own Special Air Warfare Center at Eglin AFB, Florida in 1962. Not to be ignored, the Navy created the SEALs (Sea, Air, Land forces) in 1962, combat paratrooper frogmen who could do everything the Army’s Special Forces could do and more. The Seals first saw operational action in Vietnam as well. By the 1980s, SEAL Team 6, with nearly 200 men, a far larger number than the normal 16-man units, was created specifically as a highly trained counterterrorist force. And the other military branches continued to refine their “special” and “unconventional” components as well.
Emergence of Terror As the Pretext
In the 1960s the words “terror” and “counterterror” increasingly began to appear in Army field and training manuals, as their cooperative role with the CIA developed for shaping U.S. foreign policy, not just in Vietnam, but in places such as Guatemala and the Congo, among others. And when COINTELPRO first surfaced in 1971, and Congressional hearings had begun to disclose the 1960s infiltration by the Army–in association with the CIA, FBI and local police agencies–of domestic political movements, we discovered that our views and activities at home were also being “shaped.” The lines were blurring even more between the military, the CIA, and law enforcement functions.
Army Ranger units, wearing black berets, were re-established in 1974 in response to fears of international terrorism. Rangers were relatively small forces trained for special missions such as rescue of hostages. In sorting out confusion and competition among the various military units claiming special prowess for dealing with “terrorists,” President Carter rebuilt the Special Forces and Rangers as units to accomplish very narrowly defined tasks. The Army’s First Special Forces Operational Detachment, Delta, a secret unit for antiterrorist missions became operational at Fort Bragg in November 1977, competing with the counterterrorist Navy SEAL units as the best trained of the elite forces. The Delta force drew upon specially trained personnel from the other services, not just from Special Forces and Rangers. Their first mission, Operation Eagle Claw, launched in April 1980 to rescue the American hostages in revolutionary Iran, ended in tragic failure.
Reagan Presidency Intensifies Atmosphere For CounterTerror Forces
The Reagan Presidency revived with gusto the Cold War ideology following the futile attempt of the Carter Administration to place human rights in the forefront of foreign policy. The nation was still feeling stunned from our defeat in Vietnam. Angry about the success of revolutionary Iran and perceived threats to our security interests in the Middle East, the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (only six months after President Carter angered the Soviets by pouring aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul, the origins of the Mujahideen), and the “Communist” presence in Angola and Central America, the Reagan administration set out to reverse “Communist” and revolutionary advances, and re-establish the U.S. as the prevailing, God-fearing nation in the world as claimed by our delusional belief in “Manifest Destiny.”
In the heightened atmosphere of fear of global threats from “terrorists,” revolutionaries, and the new menace of “drug traffickers,” as well as “Communists,” to preservation of the consumptive American Way of Life (AWOL), i.e., to our “national security,” President Reagan formulated a number of secret policies granting expanded powers to the CIA, FBI, and the U.S. Armed Forces for countering threats both at home and from abroad. In December 1981, he signed Executive Order 12333, establishing operating procedures for the CIA, FBI, and other intelligence agencies, intending to restore to them the domestic surveillance and other powers enjoyed prior to Watergate-initiated reforms, while still prohibiting assassinations. This Executive Order authorized the infiltration, manipulation, and disruption of domestic organizations even in the absence of evidence of wrongdoing. It must be remembered that in the language of the National Security Act of 1947 that created the CIA, a huge loophole has enabled each and every President since to commit and direct heinous criminal activity in the name of “national security”: The CIA could “perform such other functions and duties…as the National Security Council may from time to time direct.” And please note again that as early as Vietnam various “special” military units worked closely with, often under the command of, the CIA in “eliminating” civilian leadership and organizations.
On April 3, 1984, President Reagan signed classified National Security Decision Directive 138 (NSDD 138), approving both preemptive and retaliatory raids against “terrorists.” It authorized creation of FBI and CIA paramilitary squads for counterterrorist operations, and enabled the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) to have its own contract intelligence agents for the first time. A Joint Special Operations Agency was created in 1984 under the Joint Chiefs of Staff to coordinate military counterterrorist activities in each service branch. Reagan’s Vice-President, George Bush, chaired the executive Task Force on Combating Terrorism, which in turn created the Operations Subgroup (OSG) under the Terrorist Incident Working Group (TIWG) chaired at the time by Oliver North. NSDD 207 (Jan. 20, 1986) created a National Security Council (NSC) coordinator of counterterrorism, again chaired by Oliver North. Terrorism was indeed weighing heavy in the minds of the Reagan folks. Reagan’s Secretary of State, George P. Schultz, emphasized the need for the U.S. to use military force to combat terrorists, the “depraved opponents of civilization,” even though he acknowledged it could mean “the loss of life of innocent people” (“Schultz Says Risks To Innocent People Part of Combating Terrorism,” The Boston Globe, Oct. 26, 1984).
Numerous individuals and organizations in the U.S. fiercely opposed President Reagan’s aggression and internationally adjudged illegal policies in Central America. It is no surprise that Reagan quickly applied his secret “terrorist” guidelines leading to gross violations of civil liberties of a number of U.S. citizens by various federal agencies, civilian and military, in efforts to quell domestic dissent. During the Iran-Contra scandal it was revealed that there were plans to round up “dissidents” and immigrants in the event of a U.S. invasion of Nicaragua and detain them in emergency prisons, some located at U.S. military bases. This was all justified as being “legal” under the secret Executive Orders and National Security Decision Directives authorizing such draconian measures to protect “national security.”
“Terrorists,” and the emerging “drug traffickers,” have replaced “Communists” as major pretexts rationalizing interventions after conclusion of the Cold War. The use of government instruments for repressing dissent and other perceived threats to “national security,” whether here in the U.S. in local communities, or by or from other countries, was of course not new. A powerful new pretext has been ingrained, being conditioned in the minds of the U.S. population.
Post-9/11 Domestic Militarization on Steroids
Reports of police brutality are now commonplace, but rarely is anything seriously done about them. The July 19, 2013 Wall Street Journal reported: “Driven by martial rhetoric and the availability of military-style equipment–from bayonets and M-16 rifles to armored personnel carriers–American police forces have often adopted a mind-set previously reserved for the battlefield. The war on drugs and, more recently, post-9/11 antiterrorism efforts have created a new figure on the US scene: the warrior cop–armed to the teeth, ready to deal harshly with targeted wrongdoers, and a growing threat to familiar American liberties.”
The most recent long war on drugs was inaugurated by President Nixon in 1971. It has never ceased being a state war against impoverished inner city residents, exploding our prison population such the US leads the world in per capita detention rates, primarily incarcerating African American males in a society that has never truthfully overcome its insidious racism and history of being built upon unspeakable slavery. This brutal truth was well laid out by former US Supreme Court Justice in his autobiography, A Defiant Life: Thurgood Marshall and the Persistence of Racism in America (Crown 1999, and by law professor Michelle Alexander in The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (The New Press, 2010).
As the very conservative, seemingly ardent racist, Paul Craig Roberts concluded in CounterPunch (September 16, 2013), “The bald fact is that today’s cop in body armor with assault weapons, grenades, and tanks is not there to make arrests of suspected criminals. He is there in anticipation of protests to beat down the public for exercising constitutional rights. To suppress public protests is also the purpose of the Department of Homeland Security Police, a federal para-military police force that is a new development for the United States. No one in their right mind could possibly think that the vast militarized police have been created because of “the terrorist threat.” Terrorists are so rare that the FBI has to round up demented people and talk them into a plot so that the “terrorist threat” can be kept alive in the public’s mind.”
There is no substitute for assuring social and economic justice as the basic foundation for peace and tranquility. None. We either choose to a commitment to fairness for everyone, or we all lose, a principle articulated by Martin Luther King, Jr:, “An injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”
I just posted an essay “The Gated Society: The U.S. love affair with incarceration, solitary confinement and torture.” It’s filed under the date I originally authored it, May 29, 2013. You can find it by clicking on the link above.
8,400 Historical Treaties for Peace, 1500 BC to 2013 AD
(over 3,500 years = average 2.4 treaties per year)
Efforts to prevent and outlaw future wars are well established. Historical sociologist Jacques Novicow reported more than 8,000 treaties for peace between 1500 BC and 1860 AD (a 3,360-year period with an average of nearly 2.4 treaties per year).
There have been at least 400 treaties from 1861 to 2013 (wikipedia.org, list of treaties), or an average of 2.6 treaties per year over this 153-year period. Note: This does not count the more than 400 treaties between the US government and various Indigenous tribes/nations.
In 1894, Russian sociologist Jacques Novicow  (1849-1912, age 63) cited Swiss-born Frenchman Gustave Valbert’s  research in support of establishing international institutions to promote peace. Valbert documented that from the year 1500 BC to 1860 AD (3,360 years) more than 8,000 treaties were adopted with intention to assure permanent peace (average 2.4 treaties/year). The average time they remained in force was but two years.
The Moscow Gazette (1894:16–17): “From the year 1496 BC to 1861 AD, in 3,358 years, there were 227 years of peace and 3,130 years of war, or thirteen years of war to every year of peace. Within the last three centuries there have been 286 wars in Europe.”
F. J. P. Veale (British, 1897-1976, age 79) cited these figures on history of treaties in Advance to Barbarism. In the book he describes the futile efforts of the Kellogg Pact and Nuremberg, among others, to restrain power which always justifies exemptions/exceptions to the rule of law to preserve its position. Nuremberg was victor’s justice, establishing a dangerous precedent since “it removed all restraints from the most brutal and ruthless conduct of warfare in the future” because it exempted the egregious war crimes of the US and its allies, including the dropping of atomic bombs on Japan.
There have been 14,600 Wars over the past 5,600 years  (average of 2.6 per year)
Treaties are, in effect, Panglossian pacts. Pangloss was a fictional character in Voltaire’s 1759 novel Candide relentlessly expressing optimism despite great suffering. Panglossian has come to mean being blindly or naively optimistic despite the circumstances or realities.
 Jacques Novicow, La guerre et ses prétendus bienfaits (Paris: A. Colin, 1894); War and Its Alleged Benefits, trans. by Thomas Seltzer (New York, 1911).
 Gustave Valbert, “La Guerre et la Paix Perpetuelle”/War and Perpetual Peace, Revue des Deux Monde, Vol. 122, 11:690-701, 1894.] Gustave Valbert was the pseudonym for Charles Victor Cherbuliez (1829-1899, age 60). In 1864, at the age 35, he joined the Paris staff of literary and political journal, Revue des Deux Mondes, writing critical essays under the pseudonym of G. Valbert.
 F. J. P. Veale, Advance to Barbarism (Appleton, WI: C.C. Nelson Publishing Co., 1953), 8.
 Ibid., xvi.
 Edward Tick, War and the Soul (Wheaton, Illinois: Quest Books, 2005), 42; James Hillman, A Terrible Love of War (New York: Penguin Press, 2004), 17-18, identifying “decisive wars,” not counting “thousands of indecisive ones.”].
From the FBI’s origins it has been used primarily as an instrument to repress ideological enemies. In the late 1910s and 1920s, after collecting names of 150,000 US residents, it ravaged with jail, deportations, and killings, those labeled labor and immigrant “radicals” who were harshly condemning US entrance into World War I and intelligently critiquing economic injustices rampant in the US capitalist economy. At the same time, the FBI virtually ignored white supremist groups like the KKK whose six million members – nearly 25 percent of the white male population at the time – were lynching with impunity six African Americans every month on average. Similarly, it consistently ignored with impunity countless paramilitary thugs hired by corporations who killed hundreds and injured thousands of labor organizers seeking better pay and working conditions.
Today, the FBI and CIA devastate through jail, torture and long-term imprisonment many marginal people of Arab, Muslim, and South Asia backgrounds, while effectively ignoring the criminal white collar Wall Street banksters deemed immune because they are too big and important to jail. Over the years, including during the FBI’s notoriously illegal and secret Cointelpro campaign, 1956 – 1971, the FBI has systematically, and illegally, repressed a broad array of citizens who righteously sought to correct serious social injustices and illegalities, representing the women’s, civil right’s, anti-war, Black power, American Indian, and occupy movements, among many others.
President Reagan re-ignited Cointelpro in 1981 signing Executive Order/EO-12333, an explicit policy using “terror” as a pretext to repress what he preposterously claimed were efforts to create a Soviet Beachhead in the Americas. It authorized the FBI, CIA, and other agencies to restore domestic surveillance that included infiltration, manipulation, and disruption of domestic organizations, even in absence of any evidence of wrongdoing. This was particularly applied to persons who were condemning Reagan’s truly gruesome terrorist policies killing and maiming hundreds of thousands of impoverished citizens seeking long overdue justice in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua. Two-Hundred thousand Central American campesinos were savagely murdered by Reagan’s policies. EO-12333, along with National Security Decision Directive/NSDD-138, “Combatting terrorism,” which approved pre-emptive strikes and retaliatory raids against so-called “terrorists”, became policy with subsequent amendments having the effect of what White House officials once described as “licenses to kill” and “go anywhere, do anything authority.”
Since 9/11, under every president, the JTTF, with over 100 offices and a $3 billion/year budget, using 15,000 registered informants, and as many as 50,000 unofficial ones, many with criminal records seeking immunity from their own prosecution, has carried out an ideological campaign effectively instilling fear in the US American public. Its agents direct particularly vulnerable people to consider committing an act which normally hadn’t been independently thought of, an act the subject is clearly not capable of carrying out on his/her own. Trevor Aaronson, author of The Terror Factory: Inside the FBI’s Manufactured War On Terrorism (IG Publishing, 2013), documented 508 defendants the FBI targeted as terrorists since 2001 using informants, agent provocateurs, or sting operations. He describes the overwhelming majority as “fantasy terror operations.” Stephan Salisbury, author of Mohamed’s Ghosts: An American Story of Love and Fear in the Homeland (Nation Books, 2010), concludes that if homegrown “terrorist cells” are not simply elusive but an illusion as appears increasingly to be the case, the entire war on [OF] terror collapses. He finds over and over that the FBI provides the means to carry out plots with marginal suspects who have little capability to launch an attack without the government’s help – the government instigates, plans, and brings it to fruition.
The definition of domestic “terrorism” now broadly encompasses historically constitutionally protected expressions such as labor pickets/strikes, nonviolent direct actions/civil disobedience and peaceful assemblies. Prosecutors increasingly target these activities as “terrorist” actions.
In 1986, I participated with three other war veterans, one a recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor, in an open-ended water-only fast on the US Capitol steps to protest the lawless polices in Central America of the President and Congress. We ended the fast on the 47th day after receiving notice from around the country of 500 nonviolent actions in solidarity with our message. How could we even imagine that this water-only fast was ridiculously considered a sufficiently serious threat to “national security” that we became FBI suspects under their formal category, “domestic security/terrorism sabotage.” Later the nation learned of hundreds of suspicious harassments and break-ins, including surreptitious entry into private homes and offices, including our veteran’s fast office. Over 1,600 groups were investigated and nearly 7,000 US citizens were targeted as “terrorists.” In my case, this labeling led to my nearly being killed at a nonviolent protest that took my legs and fractured my skull. I describe this violent crime in my psychohistorical memoir, Blood On The Tracks: The Life and Times of S. Brian Willson (PM Press, 2011). [SEE Meiklejohn Civil Liberties Human Rights and Peace Law Docket, 1945-1993, PL-234/41.2; Brian Willson v. Cagle; 717 FSupp 1521 (ND CA 1988)].
CONCLUSION: Portland is far better off terminating its relationship with the FBI’s JTTF. Serious oversight has been lacking. This is grossly irresponsible. But it is doubtful that any effective oversight is possible with the amount of secrecy demanded by the FBI. In fact, working with the JTTF has the potential of instilling fear and distrust among citizens with its regular resort to “fantasy terror operations.” This in turn continues a vicious cycle that justifies retention of their jobs and security infrastructures not to mention a forever war of terror, without any serious public scrutiny in our fear-laden, terrorama society. The enemy is everywhere, and nowhere!
“Our business is killing, and business is good.”
– Slogan painted on a US 9th Infantry Division helicopter in Viet Nam’s Mekong Delta, 1969
Virtually all of us born and raised in US America have been, or were, inculcated in the myth that the United States is the greatest country in the history of the world endowed by our creator to bring prosperity to the impoverished and Christianity to the heathen. Indeed, we are exceptional – unusual, extraordinary – but not in the ways we were led to believe.
In 1969 Viet Nam, dramatic, seemingly incomprehensible differences between what I had been taught and firmly believed about the nobility of “America,” and the unspeakable transgressions I experienced with my own senses, required me to either ignore these troubling differences as invalid, thereby preserving my beliefs, or recognize that what I had been taught was extremely flawed and seriously challenge my comfortable paradigm, setting me on a path of scary truth-seeking.
The Wool IS our Eyes (Not pulled over them)
What are the origins of a cultural ethos that manifests in such unconscionable behavior? My war experiences led me to re-examine US and world history, cultural cliches, and unquestioned assumptions. Reading my grandfather’s 1906 U.S. history book, “The History of the United States” by James W Garner and Henry Cabot Lodge, made me realize our white cultural sense of superiority was explicitly taught to generations of US Americans. For example, the first chapter proudly explained that the “destruction” of the American Indians was due to the fact “that inferior people must yield to a superior civilization in one way or another. They must take on civilization or pass out.” Some would claim the wool has been pulled over our eyes. However, a careful reading of history reveals that the wool has been IN our eyes from our origins.
It’s no accident that the US American culture has proven to become an extraordinarily dangerous imperial threat in the world. And our behavior is consistently and exceptionally brutal and pathologically violent at home as well as abroad, since our oligarchic ruling structure is exceptionally fearful of genuine people power wherever it manifests.
Eurocentric values of systematic violence and arrogance were introduced into the New World in 1492 when Italian Cristoforo Columbo, sailing under the Spanish flag, invaded the West Indies. Columbus’ log stated, “with fifty men we could subjugate them and make them do whatever we want.” Eyewitness Bartolome de las Casas described unspeakable behavior that “no age can parallel….cruelty never before seen, nor heard of, nor read of.” The Indigenous possessed no vocabulary to describe the bestiality inflicted upon them. The Arawak Indians were virtually wiped out in 40 years.
Our original English Puritan settlers established the tone of sacred superiority. “We shall find that the God of Israel is among us….For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us.” Since the early 1600s, prior to creation in 1789 of the formal US government, groups of armed adventurers and frontiersmen (operating as paramilitary death squads) alongside various European militaries, engaged in almost constant bloodshed with the “beastly” Indians, carrying out one of the greatest genocides in human history.
The Colonies Began As Private Commercial Enterprises
The corporate control of our government that we decry today has been with us more or less since our nation’s founding. The early “settlers” did not come seeking business or trade with “savages”, but were in effect employees or indentured servants of private commercial, corporate enterprises of stock-holding London investor-based companies who magically received grants from the Crown to develop lands inhabited by Indigenous in what are today Virginia and Massachusetts. The settlers were charged with the grunt work of planting and harvesting crops which were then sent to England to satisfy investor needs for quick profits in the New World. Many of the men we call our “Founding Fathers” – George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Robert Morris, Patrick Henry, and Benjamin Franklin – were early speculators who claimed hundreds of thousands of acres of Indian land. The Founding Fathers vision was an “empire of liberty” [Jefferson], “imperial republicanism” [Madison] and a mercantile, imperially expansive nation – a new “American system.” Theirs was not a vision of democracy. In George Washington’s second term as President he declared that emergence of “democratic societies” threatened the new republic.
New World Holocaust
It is estimated as many as 18,000,000 Indigenous north of the Rio Grande inhabited more than 600 autonomous societies in 1492, speaking an estimated 500-plus languages. Remarkably free of serious diseases before the Europeans and African slaves arrived, terrible epidemics introduced by the newcomers killed hundreds of thousands. Many Indians were forced into starvation and thousands of others were systematically murdered and massacred as settlers moved westward from the Atlantic coast colonies. Over the next four centuries a massive die-off reduced the original native population by more than 95 percent. Speaking with forked tongue, the US Government broke all of its 600 plus treaties and agreements with various Indigenous nations. This holocaust of immense proportion has yet to be sufficiently recognized for its significance to us today. This forceful dispossession of other peoples is our original cultural sin and the wool in our eyes keeps us from seeing it.
US Military Precedents
Our exceptional US military precedents were established in 1779 during the Revolutionary War, when Continental Army Supreme General George Washington ordered General Sullivan to completely eliminate the Iroquois who were mostly siding with the British against the settlers invading their lands:
“The immediate objects are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements… It will be essential to ruin their crops now in the ground and prevent their planting more…. to lay waste all the settlements around…that the country may not be merely overrun, but destroyed. [Y]ou will not by any means listen to any overture of peace before the total ruinment of their settlements… Our future security will be in their inability to injure us and in the terror with which the severity of the chastisement they receive will inspire them.”
This order, explicitly or implicitly, established imperial US military principles operating to this day: (1) Total war/genocide targeting all inhabitants for elimination; (2) preventing peace; (3) pre-emptive war; (4) terror; (5) crime of self-defense; (6) revenge. Learning that our nation’s “Founding Fathers” resorted to both terror and pre-emptive war was jolting.
General Sullivan’s dutiful execution in 1779 of Washington’s orders 1779 has been graphically described by historians as “the most ruthless application of a scorched-earth policy” in US American history comparable to Sherman’s Civil War march to the sea, General LeMay’s incendiary wasteland bombings of North Korea in 1950-53, and search-and-destroy missions carried out by US soldiers in Vietnam. All the Iroquois settlements were wasted despite being considered one of the most advanced Indigenous federations in the New World.
Manifest Destiny – Continental Expansion
Early “manifest destiny” behavior was psychically facilitated by combination of ethnocentrism (ethnic superiority) and a deep racism – fear manifested as hatred directed toward people of “color,” or those who otherwise looked “different” from white Europeans. Policies were aimed to eliminate certain human beings so they would have an “inability to injure us.” Today’s war OF terror continues this pattern.
Thomas Jefferson’s interest in an empire of liberty was summarized in his 1809 letter to James Madison: “I am persuaded no Constitution was ever before so well calculated as ours for extensive empire and self-government.” Beginning with the Louisiana Purchase exercised by President Jefferson in 1803 despite possessing no constitutional authority whatsoever, the new republic began grandiose expansion with nine territorial additions to the original states, along with fifteen islands and the Panama Canal Zone. Continental and hemispheric manifest destiny was completed by 1890 with the US Army massacre of Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee. An earlier subsidy of economic development was slave labor of Black Africans and wage slavery of poor Asian and European immigrants.
Early Congressional militants such as Henry Clay and others interested in promoting the “American System” urged expansion into Canada and Cuba, claiming that the “virtuous and patriotic” framers possessed “too much wisdom to restrict Congress to defensive war.”
US hegemony in the Western Hemisphere was “authorized” by the 1823 Monroe Doctrine that declared the American continents “are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers” and that “any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere” would be considered “dangerous to our peace and safety.” Early westward expansion was first justified under the slogan “Manifest Destiny” in 1845 when “The Democratic Review” declared that it was “Our manifest destiny to over spread the continent allotted by Providence for the development of our yearly multiplying millions.” John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts described the US as a “nation, coextensive with the North American Continent, destined by God and nature to be the most populous and powerful people ever combined under one social compact.”
Examining the historical records of the Continental army, and the formal army of the Republic, reveals that army units were involved between 1775 and 1902 in more than 9,000 distinct skirmishes, of which nearly 3,200 involved serious casualties. More than 1,200 of these were battles against Indian nations. In the same period of time, US naval units, which by 1900 had surpassed the strength of the British Navy, had been militarily engaged on more than 1,500 occasions while capturing some 4,000 merchant vessels in foreign seas. Additionally the US Navy made thousands of military port calls in Latin America, Asia, Russia, and Africa. Few found fault with this imperial behavior. With God on our side, then as now, we could do no wrong.
Manifest Destiny Goes Global
In addition to the thousands of paramilitary and military operations waged against Indigenous from the 1600s to 1900, US Presidents have ordered at least 560 overt military interventions, funded by Congress and the people, into more than 100 countries from 1798 to the present, justified to protect “American interests.” In addition, thousands of covert operations, all illegal, have been conducted since the CIA’s creation in 1947. Today, US “Full Spectrum Dominance” is assured with over 1,000 military installations around the world, Special Forces death squads operating in 150 countries, military ships sailing in every seaspace, military planes flying in every airspace, and satellites and weapons launched in outerspace. On the home front, an exceptional spying apparatus tracks our every move while insidious myopic propaganda daily bombards our brains, all justified under the paternalistic “we know best” tone of superiority and exceptionalism in which information is presented.
“American interests” (free marketeers) have long ruled our policies. In 1859, US Senator Thomas Hart Benton (D-MO) urged trade and lucrative commerce with Asia to “realize the grand idea of Columbus carrying wealth and dominion with it.” In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt bragged that he had forcefully taken Panama from Colombia due to the latter’s incapacity “of keeping order on the Isthmus” claiming that in “flagrant cases of wrongdoing” by Latin American republics, the US had the right to exercise a “Big Stick police power” justifying increased intervention in the internal affairs of Latin America – the Roosevelt Corollary.
In 1907, while lecturing at Columbia University, future president Woodrow Wilson described the theme of the new American century:
“Since trade ignores national boundaries and the manufacturer insists on having the world as a market, the flag of his nation must follow him, and the doors of the nations which are closed must be battered down….Colonies must be obtained or planted, in order that no useful corner of the world may be overlooked or left unused.”
The US gained more prominence as an aggressive world imperial power after arrogantly and criminally dropping atomic bombs on Japan. Since WWII, it has increasingly ruled by terror, ordering over 390 military interventions in more than 100 countries, while bombing 28 of them, and threatening nuclear bombs on 20 different occasions.
Today’s “globalization,” enforced by terror and war, is product of the continuous theme of Eurocentric exploitation first established some 500 years ago. In a short historical time period, original inhabitants of North America were forced to accept an Eurocentric standard of intolerant religion (Christianity), a politics of arrogance and doublespeak (gruesome exploitation described as “democratizing”), and an economics of private greed (capitalism), while being permanently dispossessed of their land and rich cultures. How do we explain this genocide? I argue that this cultural ethos remains etched into our souls, residing as repressed memory and hidden feelings of terrifying shame. But we can’t see it because of the wool in our eyes.
Historical Precedents of Imperial Behavior
This kind of diabolical imperial pattern is not unique in world history. Intentional inducement of fear (terror) has always been and continues to be a significant policy for control of one nation, or one group, by another. It is not restricted in its application to the United States civilization. It has been used since the advent of “civilization” some 5,000 to 6,000 years ago.
In seeking a peoples-oriented history, new facts and circumstances often contradict the prevailing and “sacrosanct” story. Unfortunately, many of the attitudes uttered by white, Puritanical Pilgrims, founding fathers, and greedy civilian and military “leaders,” remain insidiously and structurally operative. Overtly expressed as well as suppressed sentiments of racism and classism continue to dominate much of our personal and political lives. A question I often ask is, how can one nation of human beings so callously and thoughtlessly drop bombs on another nation of human beings, knowing that thousands will be murdered? Exceptional pathology, indeed! I believe such barbarism can only be explained by a deep cruel racism and/or ugly ethnocentrism operating as defense mechanisms that distract us from long-festering insecurities.
The American Way Of Life Is Not Negotiable
Behavior continually couched in terms of divinely blessed American exceptionalism is above reproach. When President George H.W. Bush attended the June 1992 Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (UN Conference on Sustainable Development), he resisted pleas of 152 leaders of other countries to make lasting changes that could ensure protection of the world on which all nations depend, boldly proclaiming “The American way of life is not negotiable.”
George Kennan, director of US State Department’s Policy Planning Staff, published a top-secret document in 1948 in which he shared an honest prescription for successful US imperial policy:
“…we have about 50 percent of the world’s wealth, but only 6.3 percent of its population… Our real task…is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity …. We should cease to talk about … unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization… [W]e are going to have to deal in straight power concepts.”
Post-World War II US plans for global dominance (as opposed to what we were taught was a Soviet plan) are spelled out in National Security Council Report #68 (NSC-68), April 14, 1950, “United States Objectives for National Security.” An ultimate declaration of US global “Manifest Destiny,” NSC-68 formulated a worldview where leaders of the United States asserted their unique right and responsibility to impose their chosen “order among nations” so that “our free society can flourish,” that US policy must “foster a fundamental change in the nature of the Soviet system.” A global imperial policy was indispensable to “protect our belief in ourselves and our way of life.” NSC-68 “imposes on us, in our own interests, the responsibility of world leadership” such that we must seek to “foster a world environment in which the American system can survive and flourish.”
Following World War II, the US considered all political and economic sectors or regions of influence that it did not control as being a threat to its global objectives of an integrated political-economic capitalism, i.e., promotion and global spread of a grotesquely consumptive American Way Of Life (AWOL
US Civilization Built Upon Three Exceptionally Diabolical Holocausts
Conveniently left out of the discussion is the fact that our civilization is founded on three holocausts (subsidies): (1) stealing land at gunpoint while murdering millions of Indigenous with impunity; (2) stealing “free” labor at gunpoint while murdering millions of Africans with impunity; (3) stealing global raw materials at gunpoint while murdering millions of people around the world with impunity during the “The American Century” (20th). Our systematic theft of land, labor and resources with no accountability has terribly spoiled us.
Exceptionally Unjust, Repressive and Narcissistic
We are exceptional – exceptionally violent, narcissistic and pathological. We are exceptionally consumptive and therefore exceptionally polluting, exceptionally deceitful and exceptionally imperial in order to preserve our sense of superiority at any cost.
The US is an exceptionally class-based society ruled by the 1 percent, ranking as the 42nd most unequal country in the world, per the CIA. Astonishingly, .1% (one-tenth of 1%, or 310,000 persons), have more combined pre-tax income than the poorest 120 million people combined. Social epidemiologists tell us that social health directly relates to scale of income inequality – how large the gap is between rich and poor. Inequitable societies such as the US tend to have exceptionally high rates of violent crime and homicide as residents experience increased hostility, and are less likely to trust one another in community.
Consequently, the US possesses an exceptional dependence upon incarceration, especially of its poor and ethnic minorities, such that more than 2.5 million citizens are imprisoned in more than 9,000 jails and prisons. The US holds 25 percent of the world’s prisoners – boasting the world’s highest per capita detention rate with 800 prisoners for every 100,000 people. Torture has also long been US policy. A 1931 government report concluded that use of torture was “widespread” throughout the entire U.S. criminal justice system and it remains an unspoken policy to this day.
Within our own borders, US military units, augmented by private vigilante groups, have violently intervened over 160 times on behalf of corporations putting down worker’s demands for fair labor policies, despite laws prohibiting their use. Historians conclude the US has the “bloodiest and most violent labor history of any industrial nation in the world,” with over 700 deaths and thousands of injuries before the 1930s.
Whites’ fear of losing their indispensable subsidy provided by slavery and low-wage servitude, led to exceptionally grotesque violence against African Americans with thousands of lynching’s, mutilations, and official executions in the 1800s and 1900s. Virtually every Black person living during that period experienced terror on a regular basis, and these scars remain searing to this day.
We Are the Savages – RX: Cleanse the Wool From Our Eyes
Thomas Jefferson’s words in our Declaration of Independence – that [King George III] “has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an indistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions,” describe precisely our behavior in Viet Nam, and in virtually all of our historical imperial crimes. Who are the real merciless savages? I submit that Jefferson had it backward, an example of psychologist Carl Jung’s shadow concept describing performance of a kind of dishonest jujitsu projecting shameful inner demons onto others (demonizing) in efforts to avoid the pain of emotional honesty and personal intellectual accountability. In Viet Nam I discovered that I was one of the merciless savages.
Our exceptionally insatiable, addictive consumption is the domestic political energy driving our exceptionally imperial foreign policy, the latter being necessary to preserve our exceptional orgy of materialism. Our insistence on being “Number One” hides our exceptional national shame and fear of facing our genocidal origins, thus making us an exceptionally dangerous threat to the Planet. Our business remains killing, and business remains lucrative.
We can choose to become a humble and empathic society. Indeed, our survival as a world requires becoming exceptionally noble in caring and sharing. Or, we can stubbornly cling to our delusions of grandeur using dangerous defense mechanisms necessary to sustain them. My prescription for earnest truth seekers is to live more simply apprenticing in the art of becoming a revolutionary, while pursuing passionate justice and practicing brutal honesty. Such path would cleanse the wool from our eyes enabling a painful but refreshing recovery of our humanity.